Grapefruit Juice Augments Drug Bioavailability – Update on what we know 10 years after discovery

Regrading grapefruit juice interactions with medications we take, now more than a decade has passed since it was discovered that grapefruit juice interacts with  drugs. Here is the gist of this paper as it applies to our everyday lives, taken verbatim from the article itself.

“Grapefruit juice does not need to be taken simultaneously with the medication, in order to produce the interaction. The bioavailability of lovastatin has been reported to be doubled, even when taken 12 h after the juice intake (Rogers et al, 1999), and the effects of grapefruit juice on felodipine have been shown to exist at about 30% of its maximum even when the drug was taken 24h after the juice intake (Lundahl et al, 1995). The prolongation of the interaction is consistent with the pharmacological mechanism of the interaction, since biosynthesis of a new enzyme is necessary. Up to 3 days persistence of the juice impact is reported (Takanaga et al, 2000); however, it appears that an interval of 24h between ingestion of grapefruit juice and a drug can usually prevent a potential clinically relevant interaction (Lilja et al, 2000b).”

Research Paper:


Tongues in each others mouth is how lovers
speak to unsettle eternal darkness.

My tongue touches nothing. Email and texts
are a weak ersatz for your absence. I inhale

from a perfumed letter you sent last summer.
Its musky patchouli is you. Wrapped around

my waist, breathing, hard. Tonight the moon shakes
powder from her boney skin. Bamboo chimes

rattle the breeze like the silk-strung bones
of my own fingers sifting through the thick

peach of your hair. Paramours at the end
of the mind, (Stevens, you were wrong) we are

dreams that forget themselves as is
our preternatural natures to predispose us

into the waking dreams of our own minds
that coats the garden in this quiet ashen light

powered by the prolonged pain of your absence:
I am not waving but drowning.

(copyright 2016 Kurt Lovelace all rights reserved)

Love Poem

 by Kevin Prufer

No money
and the mailbox grew wet and empty-hearted
in the rain. No money

and the ambulance’s great red eye
lit someone else’s
sleeping street.

Darling, they made me leave the hospital
and come home
where, moneyless, I looked out the window, into the rain.

You were empty, asleep and untouchable
in your hospital gown. Emptily,
the nurses walked past me,

their sympathetic heels chipping the linoleum.
Darling, the bruise where the IV goes
was round as the absence of a coin,

and you, asleep, the tube in your throat
both terrifying and
I don’t know what to call it-

broke? Without money,
the world Stops, the world’s great cities
close their eyes.

Then the heart goes dead no matter how they pound it.
Without money, I keep driving
the long road from the hospital

cursing the nurse who touched my arm so gently,
said, “go home now, there’s nothing you can do.”

it’s so much easier to talk about money,
to spend myself inside this poem.
Wake up.

You’ve slept and slept while the rain came down.
say something, anything at all.
Open your bankrupt mouth.

Grading the Weekend

While sipping coffee, I read what one student wrote:
“The surviving fifty rare whooping cranes
with their seven-foot wingspread that propels them
in their annual migration from northern Canada
to the Gulf of Mexico fly unerringly
and swiftly overhead as they migrate southward
using a kind of built-in radar in their search
for winter quarters near Aransas Pass.”

Surviving fifty myself, feeling rare and whooping
with my six-foot slouch that propels me nowhere
in my daily migrations from the kitchen to the couch,
I live by the Gulf of Mexico, sleep unerringly and
swiftly, undercover, my dreams migrate southward
using a kind of built-in slinky
in search for vaginal quarters
near my wife’s Aransas Pass.

To be surviving melanoma is rare
with its seven wretched drugs I puke, that propels
me out of the gothic hospital to monthly migrations of chemo;
swimming in the Gulf of Mexico, on my back, I float unerringly
and slowly, overheard, the nurses’ whispers migrate southward
out of memory, which is a kind of built-in shit-breeder
when I am in pain and searching for the way out
near the dark rings of Uranus.

But survival is everything rare as whooping
or her pubic hair spread to propel me
in my daily migrations from her coffer to wherever
it is in the Gulf of Mexico I am off to, I unerringly
admit to caring enough to love her butt
less than I ought too as I migrate southward
using a kind of built-in stupidity
in my blindly succumbing to what is expected of me
clearly perfecting it into a fairly fucked life.

© 2015  Kurt Lovelace – All Rights Reserved


(def: German. An improvement that makes things worse.)

Benched downtown, lipping a latte, my eyes
pause at the vast new construction
glistening across the street. In its shadow

I watch a bird die into the third story
of its reflection. Falling, it intimates to me
the terribly intimate stupidity of the engineer

who flowered the foresight that birds
might mistake themselves for their reflections,
but the engineer, who, nevertheless

got up every morning and shaved money
from the budget of his building,
now grows his dead birds on the pavement.

copyright © 2015 Kurt Lovelace All Rights Reserved


There’s a certain joy in watching someone you hate
suffer. Naturally it took a German
mind to cobble together and join the words
schade and freude, joy at suffering. I see

how easy it happened. Pointed helmet
on head, my great grandfather, Peter Kessel,
seated atop his rust-red Reitpferd in WWI
came crushing over a small patch

of flowers through the forest he guarded.
Yellow dandelions and white Spring saxifrage
had commandeered the fields with their beauty.
Peter ‘s horse snorted and slowed. Ahead,

what had been hidden in small heights
of wild grass lay a man sprawled on his back.
Peter dismounted, pushed a polished boot
into the man. He jerked and moaned.

His left hand, zigzaged like a baguette
conducting the breeze. He began to sing
“C’est la vie.” Grandfather kneeled.
Ungloving his left hand, he touched

the man’s forehead. Schade — he said, too bad
– it was schade. His own supplies
meager, he’d been told not to bring
enemy combatants back to camp.

The Frenchmen was rotten with fever.
Peter trotted on, leaving him. Without much thought
he’d have shot a crippled horse. Behind him,
the man’s cries rose like larks into the meadow.

copyright © 2015 Kurt Lovelace All Rights Reserved

Lost in Space


I’ve never felt in control of my life.
So unlike Will Robinson, who walks alone
confident in the dark, navigating rocks

jutting up from soil like jagged giants.
Will moves without tripping, welcomes
vast rivers blocking his way, ahead

where his cleverness already owns solutions
unfolding from his brain, his small frame
skedaddling before the enormous painted

draperies of a B&W planet. Chalk light drowns
on slate grass. Black-glass insects ooze
on skin-black leaves. Undaunted, Will squeezes

his walkie-talkie, hailing Alpha Control.
As if we could call out waiting light years
for an answer to find its vast way back

between the vacuum and the stars
for what is control but the hand’s reaching
out, manipulating, from the rotation

and twisting wheels of the shoulder
the things we love and hate that sit before us
when there’s no one there to tell us how?

copyright © 2015 Kurt Lovelace All Rights Reserved

A general parity problem obstruction

What's new

Many problems and results in analytic prime number theory can be formulated in the following general form: given a collection of (affine-)linear forms $latex {L_1(n),dots,L_k(n)}&fg=000000$, none of which is a multiple of any other, find a number $latex {n}&fg=000000$ such that a certain property $latex {P( L_1(n),dots,L_k(n) )}&fg=000000$ of the linear forms $latex {L_1(n),dots,L_k(n)}&fg=000000$ are true. For instance:

  • For the twin prime conjecture, one can use the linear forms $latex {L_1(n) := n}&fg=000000$, $latex {L_2(n) := n+2}&fg=000000$, and the property $latex {P( L_1(n), L_2(n) )}&fg=000000$ in question is the assertion that $latex {L_1(n)}&fg=000000$ and $latex {L_2(n)}&fg=000000$ are both prime.
  • For the even Goldbach conjecture, the claim is similar but one uses the linear forms $latex {L_1(n) := n}&fg=000000$, $latex {L_2(n) := N-n}&fg=000000$ for some even integer $latex {N}&fg=000000$.
  • For Chen’s theorem, we use the same linear forms $latex {L_1(n),L_2(n)}&fg=000000$ as in the previous two cases, but now…

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– after the 2014 mid-term elections

Tuesday was wet. Should we have bothered to vote?
Panhandlers, anonymous as a

clutch of laid-off injured football players,
huddle under a freeway. Deputies

watch them from warm cars idling. Politics
is what happens on CNN

in some distant country. We wait in lines
for hot lattes to warm our hands at Starbucks,

muttering before starting our second jobs
assembling complaints of failures on a phone line.

Copyright © 2014 Kurt Lovelace, All Rights Reserved

The Five Thousand Foot View (working draft)

Note: this article is intended for undergraduate math majors, preferably seniors, but freshman will benefit from the look ahead, at what is expected to be known by them when they are seniors, as well as entering graduate students.

I am readying myself for the GRE math subject exam in the late Spring, and therefore reviewing all four years of undergraduate mathematics at this time.

In what follows, I will be summarizing every major area of undergraduate mathematics, as follows:

  1. Geometry: Plane, Elliptic, Hyperbolic, and Affine
  2. Linear Algebra
  3. Vector Analysis
  4. Real Analysis
  5. Complex Analysis
  6. Topology
  7. Ordinary Differential Equations
  8. Fourier Analysis, Lebesgue Integration and General Transform Theory
  9. Probability Theory
  10. Abstract Algebra
  11. Graph Theory
  12. Combinatorics and Algorithmic Complexity
  13. Set Theory and Transfinite Arithmetic
  14. Basic & Analytic Number Theory
  15. Partial Differential Equations
  16. Differential Geometry

If you are a student of any subject, then I hope you have already asked yourself at times the question “What does all of this mean? What is it for?” if you are as I am, a mathematics major, then I believe that this question is particularly important. For one can too often get lost in the forest, standing amid the numberless trees, each one a bit different from its neighbors yet all oddly familiar, somehow similar, like wondering through a waking dream.

This is neither an idle nor a superfluous question. Call it “the big picture.” Call it what you will. It is important to know the gist and the connections between different areas of ones subject, and to know each area for what it really is about.

Linear Algebra

Let’s look at linear algebra. The matrix is the lingua franca tool of linear algebra, and so linear algebra is the study of vector spaces and their transformations using matrices. After a first course, one should know the axioms that define a vector space, the algebra of matrices, how to express the structure of vector spaces using matrices, and especially how, given the basis of a vector space, to represent any transformation of that vector space using a matrix, and how to use and calculate eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Lastly, the key theorem of linear algebra is to know the 8 distinct conditions that each alone can guarantee a matrix is inevitable. And that is it, the heart of an entire semester of undergraduate linear algebra summarized in one paragraph. Again, in a nutshell: basic linear algebra is the study of the transformation of vector spaces into one another and understanding equivalent conditions under which a matrix is invertible.

What is linear algebra used for? Everything, and almost everywhere, is the short answer. Anytime you seek a first approximation to some problem, it is likely that you will be using linear algebra. In graph theory matrices are used to represent a graph’s structure in a precise and concise manner. In abstract algebra, matrices are used in the representation of groups and other algebraic structures. And linear algebra comes up in both ordinary and partial differential equations, differential geometry, knot theory, number theory, and almost everywhere else. Learn it well, know it well if you are going to be doing research in pure or applied mathematics.

If one takes a fourth year, second semester of linear algebra, often considered “part 2” of linear algebra studies, then one will likely encounter — inner product spaces, direct sums of subspaces, primary decomposition, reduction to triangular and Jordan forms, both rational and classical forms, dual spaces, orthogonal direct sums, bilinear and quadratic forms, and real normality — among the main topics.

Here are some great free full textbooks to download for reference or study:

Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon. 499 pages. [direct link to whole book.]

Linear Algebra. David Cherney, Tom Denton & Andrew Waldron. 410 pages. [direct link to whole book]

-=KuRt=- © 2013 Kurt Lovelace – All Rights Reserved